ADFS

The Active Directory Federation Services is a service available for Windows Server and as the name implies it does rely on Active Directory as the Identity Provider and the server(s) must be joined to the AD Domain.

It uses claim based access control to implement federated identity and uses the WS-Federation protocol and Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) although the latest version does also support Oauth.

Sources:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/identity/ad-fs/overview/ad-fs-requirements#BKMK_1

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb897402.aspx